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Consciousness has long been difficult to define, whether you're a biologist, neuroscientist, or philosopher.
So Frans de Waal looks at what actions humans take that require conscious thought.
Comparing them to actions in certain animals suggests consciousness is not a human trait alone.
Frans de Waal is a Dutch/American biologist and primatologist. He teaches at Emory University and directs the Living Links Center for the Study of Ape and Human Evolution, in Atlanta, Georgia. He is known for his popular books, such as Chimpanzee Politics (1982), Bonobo: The Forgotten Ape (1997) and The Age of Empathy (2009). He has been elected to the National Academy of Sciences and the Royal Dutch Academy of Sciences. His latest book is Mama's Last Hug: Animal Emotions and What They Tell Us about Ourselves (http://goo.gl/6Me8HG
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